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Webopedia's Quick Reference Area

Use this reference section for information on common Internet and computer facts and occurrences.

How E-Commerce Sites Work  
Thanks to myriad products and services, doing business on the Web has been easier. However, before you can open for business, you need to understand how to offer products and accept payments.
Computer Certifications  
Have you heard about a computer certification program but are not sure if it is right for you? Use this handy guide to find out more information and help you decide. (Last updated: 6/2/06)
Blade servers  
These cost-efficient, slim and less power-consuming servers are a hit for high-performance computing as well as for the small and midsize business.
Get a Grip on
Google Services
The search engine giant has so many services it's hard to keep them all straight. This reference highlights the many Google-branded offerings.
Types of Internet Connections  
While technology changes at a rapid pace, so do Internet connections. The connection speeds listed below is a general snapshot, representing general average to maximum speeds at the time of publication. (Last updated: 4/7/06)
An Introduction to Fonts  
Postscript versus TrueType, bit-map versus vector, screen versus printer. ... Font technology changed the way we used computers, but why are they so darn confusing?
Data Formats and Their File Extensions  
Ever encounter a file extension you've never seen before? Check this page for more 3,500 data formats and their corresponding file extensions. (Last updated: 2/10/06)'s Technology Forums's community forums are a useful resource for getting questions answered and sharing knowledge about specific subjects. The following list contains descriptions of and links to some of the most active and helpful technology forums. Ask a question, or help others find the answers to theirs. (Last updated: 12/16/05)
Wireless Networking Standards  
Wireless networking is becoming increasingly important to businesses, both small and large. Use this chart to make sense out of all the wireless local-area network standards. (Updated: Sept. 2, 2005)
How E-mail Works  
Sure, you use e-mail everyday of the week, but what do you really know about the technology that has profoundly changed how we communicate.
Text Messaging Abbreviations  
If you have ever been in a chat room or received an instant message or text message from someone that seemed to be in its own foreign language, this list will help you decipher the lingo.
Understanding Graphics Formats  
Graphics file formats are not created equal. Each is designed to address a specific issue. Knowing not only which one to use, but when and how to use it is the key to presenting pleasing images efficiently.
Removable Storage Reference  
Regardless of how big hard drive capacities get, there will always be a need for removable storage. We look at three technologies used to record and store data on the removable media: magnetic, optical and solid state.
A Guide to System Memory  
Think deciding what computer to buy can be complicated? Just wait until you need to upgrade your system memory. We go inside Random-Access Memory (RAM) with a special focus on DRAM, which is — for now, anyway — the most common and affordable variety.
The Digital Camera Picture  
If you can't keep up with advances in digital camera, you're not alone. We help you make sense of megapixels, zero in on the zooms (digital, optical and total) and delve into everything from price points to paper to printers.
A Guide to Combating Spam  
Is Spam overwhelming your inbox and frustrating your employees? Is your organization's productivity being impeded by a flood of spam? Webopedia offers this list of links to resources that can help you filter it out and keep it at bay.
BIOS Beep Codes  
A computer's BIOS will produce a series of beeps when it performs its POST and finds a failure in the system. Those beeps correspond to specific detected errors. Use this quick reference to decode the beeps of two common BIOS systems: AMI and Phoenix.
File Size
Conversion Table
Giga, mega, tera, kilo? What do they mean? Do you need to find out how many megabytes are in a petabyte, or home many decimal places a gigabyte holds? Use this quick reference chart to compare computer data file sizes.
Small Business Computing Essentials  
Small businesses have computing needs different from large enterprises. These special reports from Webopedia's sister site help the small business entrepreneur cut to the chase and provide the user with much needed fundamentals.
Ethernet Designations  
IEEE 802.3 specifies a series of standards for telecommunication technology over Ethernet local-area networks. This chart details the different Ethernet designations and how they differ from one another.
IRQ Numbers  
Prior to plug and play devices, users had to set IRQ values of devices manually when adding the device, such as a modem or printer, to a system. The following list of IRQ numbers specifies what each of the 16 IRQ lines are used for.
Dial-Up Modem Standards  
The CCITT has classified dial-up modems according to modulation standards. Listed here are the standards and their different transmission speeds.
Well-Known TCP Port Numbers  
In TCP/IP and UDP networks, a port is an endpoint to a logical connection and the way a client program specifies a specific server program on a computer in a network. This list of well-known port numbers specifies the port used by the server process as its contact port.
N-Tier Application Architecture  
N-tier application architecture provides a model for developers to create a flexible and reusable application. By breaking up an application into tiers, developers only have to modify or add a specific layer, rather than have to rewrite the entire application over, if they decide to change technologies or scale up.
Network Topology Diagrams  
Not all networks are designed the same. Here are diagrams of five of the most common network layouts.
The 7 Layers of the
OSI Model
Use this handy guide to compare the different layers of the OSI model and understand how they interact with each other.
Who's Who in Internet and Computer Technology  
The people listed in this section have made major contributions to the field of computer and Internet technology. As the technology leaps forward at a rapid pace, the list will continue to grow as new innovators make their mark on the industry.
Server Types  
Different servers do different jobs, from serving e-mail and video to protecting internal networks and hosting Web sites. Learn about the many types of servers used today.
Maximum Bandwidths  
How fast is fast? Chart puts into perspective line speeds used in Internet backbones, LANs, and WANs.
Microprocessor Comparison Chart  
Clear up any or all processor confusion with this cut-to-the-chase comparison chart.
Characters and ASCII Equivalents  
Special characters require special coding. Use these ascii equivalents to format special characters such as ™, ¿, ® and many others into your html document.
Countries and Their Domain Extensions  
Not all domains end in .com, .org, or .edu. Different countries use different suffixes, usually two letters. If you encounter a Web site with a unique two-letter domain extension, look here for its country equivalent.
Web Server Error Messages  
Ever encounter an error on your way to a Web site? Of course you have. Don't worry; you'll be glad to know most of them have nothing to do with your PC. It's usually the other guy's fault -- the Web server, that is. Here are some of the more common errors you'll see while surfing the Internet.
Brief Timeline of the Internet  
Although we think of the Internet as a new entity, its origins date back over 40 years. Here's a brief timeline highlighting important dates in Internet history.
Fiber Optical Networks  
By transmitting data digitally over fiber, optical networks offer increased bandwidth as well as provide higher capacity and reduce overall costs.

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