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Last modified: Tuesday, March 16, 2004 

The art of protecting information by transforming it (encrypting it) into an unreadable format, called cipher text. Only those who possess a secret key can decipher (or decrypt) the message into plain text. Encrypted messages can sometimes be broken by cryptanalysis, also called codebreaking, although modern cryptography techniques are virtually unbreakable.

As the Internet and other forms of electronic communication become more prevalent, electronic security is becoming increasingly important. Cryptography is used to protect e-mail messages, credit card information, and corporate data. One of the most popular cryptography systems used on the Internet is Pretty Good Privacy because it's effective and free.

Cryptography systems can be broadly classified into symmetric-key systems that use a single key that both the sender and recipient have, and public-key systems that use two keys, a public key known to everyone and a private key that only the recipient of messages uses.

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For pages about cryptography . Also check out the following links!

Related Links

Basic Cryptanalysis 
The contents of a U.S. Army field document detailing basic cryptanalysis.

Cryptography and Security Resources 
Excellent collection of links to cryptography and security pages. This site is maintained by Professor Ronald Rivest, creator of the MD5 message-digest algorithm.

Cryptography for encryption, digital signatures and authentication 
Contains links to information on cryptography, a tutorial on public key encryption for secrecy and a discussion of the debate regarding government control of cryptography.

DRM Watch 
Analysis of digital rights management technology.

NIST computer security resource clearinghouse 
National Institute of Standards and Technology's computer security resource clearinghouse. It contains information on numerous security topics, as well as alerts about viruses and other security threats.

RSA Data Security home page 
Site of RSA Data Security Inc, creators of the RSA encryption technology used in Netscape Navigator, Quicken, Lotus Notes, and hundreds of other products.

SSH - Cryptography A-Z 
This page lists international sources of cryptographic software, information on cryptographic methods, algorithms, and protocols. Materials cover encryption, decryption, cryptanalysis, steganography (hiding information), software, tools, information, and assessments about cryptographic methods.

The Clinton Administration's statement on commercial encryption policy 
Describes a proposed framework that would encourage the use of strong encryption in commerce and private communications while protecting the public safety and national security. Also contains a section on the U.S. Cryptography Policy. (July 1996)

Cryptography FAQs
Provides links to several USENET FAQs focusing on cryptography.

Cryptography Timeline
This site covers the historical development of cryptography from 1900 BC to the present. Much of the material is taken from book entitled, "The Codebreakers", written by David Kahn.
Contains information about cryptography research and commercial products. Look here for information (including photos) about the clipper chip and the clipper key escrow system.

Differential Cryptanalysis
Cryptanalysis resources, including tutorials, papers and case studies.

Encryption Policy Resource page
An issues-oriented site containing information United States encryption export restrictions, with links to articles, legislation, events, initiatives, and policies.

EPIC's cryptography policy page
Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) cryptography site. There are links to news and documents, policies, and resources related to cryptography and the clipper chip.

International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR) site
Contains information on upcoming IACR conferences and workshops, publications, and membership information.

Quadralay Cryptography Archive
Contains links to information on the Clipper chip, computer security issues, encryption policy resources, information liberation organizations, and the Macintosh Cryptography Interface Project.

The International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
This site hosts the research activities of the International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR).

Yahoo!'s cryptography page
Yahoo!'s directory of cryptography links.

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related categories

Digital Rights Management (DRM)


related terms



Clipper chip



key escrow

Pretty Good Privacy

public-key encryption


snake oil


symmetric-key cryptography


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