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This is Chapter 1 of Randall Hyde's book, "Art of Assembly Language." It describes the binary and hexadecimal numbering systems, binary data organization (bits, nibbles, bytes, words, and double words), signed and unsigned numbering systems, arithmetic, logical, shift, and rotate operations on binary values, bit fields and packed data, and the ASCII character set.
Character Set Standards
Provides information on character sets that can be used for data interchange.
ISO Coded character sets home page
Official JTC1/SC2 (Coded character sets) site.
ISO Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set home page
Official JTC1/SC2/WG2 (UCS) site.