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artificial intelligence
Last modified: Monday, February 25, 2002 

The branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Artificial intelligence includes
  • games playing: programming computers to play games such as chess and checkers
  • expert systems : programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms)
  • natural language : programming computers to understand natural human languages
  • neural networks : Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal brains
  • robotics : programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuli
  • Currently, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence (that is, are able to simulate human behavior). The greatest advances have occurred in the field of games playing. The best computer chess programs are now capable of beating humans. In May, 1997, an IBM super-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Gary Kasparov in a chess match.

    In the area of robotics, computers are now widely used in assembly plants, but they are capable only of very limited tasks. Robots have great difficulty identifying objects based on appearance or feel, and they still move and handle objects clumsily.

    Natural-language processing offers the greatest potential rewards because it would allow people to interact with computers without needing any specialized knowledge. You could simply walk up to a computer and talk to it. Unfortunately, programming computers to understand natural languages has proved to be more difficult than originally thought. Some rudimentary translation systems that translate from one human language to another are in existence, but they are not nearly as good as human translators. There are also voice recognition systems that can convert spoken sounds into written words, but they do not understand what they are writing; they simply take dictation. Even these systems are quite limited -- you must speak slowly and distinctly.

    In the early 1980s, expert systems were believed to represent the future of artificial intelligence and of computers in general. To date, however, they have not lived up to expectations. Many expert systems help human experts in such fields as medicine and engineering, but they are very expensive to produce and are helpful only in special situations.

    Today, the hottest area of artificial intelligence is neural networks, which are proving successful in a number of disciplines such as voice recognition and natural-language processing.

    There are several programming languages that are known as AI languages because they are used almost exclusively for AI applications. The two most common are LISP and Prolog.

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    For pages about artificial intelligence . Also check out the following links!

    Related Links

    Artificial Intelligence Repository 
    Contains interactive programs, essays, and interviews providing information concerning neural networks, artificial life, natural language processing, genetic programming, robotics, as well as other AI-related materials.

    Intelligent software products and suppliers 
    Searchable directory of over 700 product abstracts for AI and intelligent software products.

    MIT Artificial Intelligence project descriptions 
    Provides short descriptions and links to full descriptions about the numerous projects under development at MIT's AI lab. Product categories include: robotics, learning systems, information access, virtual and enhanced reality, and computing systems and environments.

    AI FAQs
    Collection of FAQs on the subject of artificial intelligence.

    AI Research Groups and Resources
    A collection of artificial intelligence research groups and resources from the University College in London.

    American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)
    Provides links to AAAI conferences, symposia, publications, workshops, resources, and organization information.

    Artificial Intelligence Repository
    This is Carnegie Mellon University's artificial intelligence repository. It hosts FAQs, a news archive, software packages, and a what's new section. In addition, there is a search feature that allows you to locate related information.

    Institute for Information Technology's AI Resources
    The Institute for Information Technology maintains a continually growing list of AI resources.

    MIT Artificial Intelligence lab events
    This page lists events of interest at MIT's artificial intelligence lab. There are links to seminars, conferences, and lab tours, as well as an AI Olympic event.

    MIT's AI Lab home page
    This site features a number of artificial intelligence resources, including several online publications.

    SRI International Artificial Intelligence Center (AIC) page
    Home page for SRI's International's Artificial Intelligence Center (AIC) , one of the world's major centers of research in artificial intelligence. Here you can find information on their research programs, staff, and publications.

    The Centre for Neural Computing Applications (CNCA)
    The CNCA is a University research group dedicated to developing neural computing and SMART software solutions to real world problems. The site provides project details, papers, extensive related links pages, and up-to-date information in the AI/neural computing world.

    The Outsider's Guide to AI
    Contains AI history, information on the LISP language, natual language processing, hardware, expert systems, human behavior, message filtering, robotics, and an AI timeline.

    Yahoo!'s AI Intelligent Software Agents page
    Yahoo!'s directory of AI Intelligent Software Agents.

    Yahoo!'s artificial intelligence page
    Yahoo!'s directory of artificial intelligence.

    Yahoo!'s expert systems page
    Yahoo!'s directory of expert systems.

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    Artificial Intelligence

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